Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae are an emerging threat to hospitals worldwide, and antibiotic exposure is a risk factor for developing fecal carriage that may lead to nosocomial infection. Here, we review how antibiotics reduce colonization resistance against Enterobacteriaceae to pinpoint possible control points for curbing their spread. Recent work identifies host-derived respiratory electron acceptors as a critical resource driving a post-antibiotic expansion of Enterobacteriaceae within the large bowel. By providing a conceptual framework for colonization resistance against Enterobacteriaceae, these mechanistic insights point to the metabolism of epithelial cells as a possible target for intervention strategies.
© 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.