Adjuvant chemotherapy has been used for decades to treat cancer, and it is well known that disruptions in cognitive function and memory are common chemotherapeutic adverse effects. However, studies using neuropsychological metrics have also reported group differences in cognitive function and memory before or without chemotherapy, suggesting that complex factors obscure the true etiology of chemotherapy-induced cognitive dysfunction (CICD) in humans. Therefore, to better understand possible mechanisms of CICD, we explored the effects of CICD in rats through cognition testing using novel object recognition (NOR) and contextual fear conditioning (CFC), and through metabolic neuroimaging via [F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). Cancer-naïve, female Sprague-Dawley rats were administered either saline (1 mL/kg) or doxorubicin (DOX) (1 mg/kg in a volume of 1 mL/kg) weekly for five weeks (total dose = 5 mg/kg), and underwent cognition testing and PET imaging immediately following the treatment regime and 30 days post treatment. We did not observe significant differences with CFC testing post-treatment for either group. However, the chemotherapy group exhibited significantly decreased performance in the NOR test and decreased F-FDG uptake only in the prefrontal cortex 30 days post-treatment. These results suggest that long-term impairment within the prefrontal cortex is a plausible mechanism of CICD in this study, suggesting DOX-induced toxicity in the prefrontal cortex at the dose used.