Human islets contain four distinct subtypes of β cells.

Dorrell C, Schug J, Canaday PS, Russ HA, Tarlow BD, Grompe MT, Horton T, Hebrok M, Streeter PR, Kaestner KH, Grompe M
Nat Commun. 2016 7: 11756

PMID: 27399229 · PMCID: PMC4942571 · DOI:10.1038/ncomms11756

Human pancreatic islets of Langerhans contain five distinct endocrine cell types, each producing a characteristic hormone. The dysfunction or loss of the insulin-producing β cells causes diabetes mellitus, a disease that harms millions. Until now, β cells were generally regarded as a single, homogenous cell population. Here we identify four antigenically distinct subtypes of human β cells, which we refer to as β1-4, and which are distinguished by differential expression of ST8SIA1 and CD9. These subpopulations are always present in normal adult islets and have diverse gene expression profiles and distinct basal and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Importantly, the β cell subtype distribution is profoundly altered in type 2 diabetes. These data suggest that this antigenically defined β cell heterogeneity is functionally and likely medically relevant.

MeSH Terms (14)

Adult Aged Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 Female Flow Cytometry Glycated Hemoglobin A Humans Insulin-Secreting Cells Islets of Langerhans Male Middle Aged Sialyltransferases Tetraspanin 29 Young Adult

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