Vitamin A, via retinoic acid (RA), is a critical micronutrient. Normally, plasma concentrations are tightly regulated. Concentrations of vitamin A metabolites (13cis-RA, atRA) and relationships between RBP4 and retinoids have never been fully evaluated in adult patients with CKD. We measured retinoid and RBP4 concentrations in plasma and urine from 55 adult patients with CKD and 21 matched healthy subjects. RBP4 and retinol levels were increased approximately twofold in patients with CKD, with a negative correlation between plasma retinol and eGFR (p = 0.006) and plasma RBP4 and eGFR (p = 0.0007). RBP4 renal clearance was higher in patients with CKD than healthy subjects but not associated with eGFR. Circulating concentrations of atRA increased and concentrations of 13cis-RA decreased in subjects with CKD with no change in RA-to-retinol ratio. Increases in circulating retinol, RBP4, and atRA may be due to increased hepatic RBP4 synthesis, retinyl ester hydrolysis, and/or hepatic secretion of RBP4-retinol.
© 2016 The Authors. Clinical and Translational Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.