The Immune Battle against Helicobacter pylori Infection: NO Offense.

Gobert AP, Wilson KT
Trends Microbiol. 2016 24 (5): 366-376

PMID: 26916789 · PMCID: PMC4841705 · DOI:10.1016/j.tim.2016.02.005

Helicobacter pylori is a successful pathogen of the human stomach. Despite a vigorous immune response by the gastric mucosa, the bacterium survives in its ecological niche, thus favoring diseases ranging from chronic gastritis to adenocarcinoma. The current literature demonstrates that high-output of nitric oxide (NO) production by the inducible enzyme NO synthase-2 (NOS2) plays major functions in host defense against bacterial infections. However, pathogens have elaborated several strategies to counteract the deleterious effects of NO; this includes inhibition of host NO synthesis and transcriptional regulation in response to reactive nitrogen species, allowing the bacteria to face the nitrosative stress. Moreover, NO is also a critical mediator of inflammation and carcinogenesis. In this context, we review the recent findings on the expression of NOS2 in H. pylori-infected gastric tissues and epithelial cells, the role of NO in H. pylori-related diseases and H. pylori gene expression, and the mechanisms whereby H. pylori regulates NO synthesis by host cells.

Published by Elsevier Ltd.

MeSH Terms (11)

Animals Chronic Disease Gastric Mucosa Gastritis Helicobacter Infections Helicobacter pylori Host-Pathogen Interactions Humans Nitric Oxide Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II Stomach Neoplasms

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