Evidence for functionally distinct glucose transporters in basal and insulin-stimulated adipocytes.

Whitesell RR, Regen DM, Abumrad NA
Biochemistry. 1989 28 (17): 6937-43

PMID: 2684269 · DOI:10.1021/bi00443a024

The activity and Km of glucose transport of rat adipocytes are quite variable in the basal state. This could be due to differing levels of highly saturable transport against a background of less saturable transport. Such heterogeneity could lead to differing conclusions as to the Km of basal cells compared to insulin-stimulated cells depending on the choice of substrate, the range of concentrations tested, and the rigor of data analysis. In the present work, we used a cell preparation which was stable and partially activated by constant agitation. We used a two-component model to fit the concentration dependence of D-glucose uptake. We defined two parallel pathways of glucose entry, a high-affinity/low-capacity pathway and a low-affinity/high-capacity pathway. Both pathways were stereospecific and were inhibited by cytochalasin B. The low-affinity pathway in basal cells had 97% of the total capacity (Vmax) with a high Km (greater than 50 mM). A second pathway had a very low Km (less than 1 mM) and only 3% of the total capacity, but contributed to 30-60% of glucose uptake at 8 mM glucose. In insulin-stimulated cells, a pathway with a Km of 4-5 mM dominated and contributed 85% of glucose transport. The low-affinity but not the very high affinity pathway persisted in stimulated cells, but its contribution was only 10-15% of transport at 8 mM glucose. These results suggest the presence of at least two functionally distinct transporters whose respective contributions can be characterized by nonlinear regression of data over a wide range of glucose concentrations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

MeSH Terms (13)

3-O-Methylglucose Adipose Tissue Animals Carbon Radioisotopes Cells, Cultured Glucose Insulin Kinetics Male Methylglucosides Monosaccharide Transport Proteins Rats Tritium

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