Kidney disease leads to clinically relevant disturbances in glucose and insulin homeostasis, but the pathophysiology in moderate-severe CKD remains incompletely defined. In a cross-sectional study of 59 participants with nondiabetic CKD (mean eGFR =37.6 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)) and 39 healthy control subjects, we quantified insulin sensitivity, clearance, and secretion and glucose tolerance using hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp and intravenous and oral glucose tolerance tests. Participants with CKD had lower insulin sensitivity than participants without CKD (mean[SD] 3.9[2.0] versus 5.0 [2.0] mg/min per µU/ml; P<0.01). Insulin clearance correlated with insulin sensitivity (r=0.72; P<0.001) and was also lower in participants with CKD than controls (876  versus 998  ml/min; P<0.01). Adjustment for physical activity, diet, fat mass, and fatfree mass in addition to demographics and smoking partially attenuated associations of CKD with insulin sensitivity (adjusted difference, -0.7; 95% confidence interval, -1.4 to 0.0 mg/min per µU/ml) and insulin clearance (adjusted difference, -85; 95% confidence interval, -160 to -10 ml/min). Among participants with CKD, eGFR did not significantly correlate with insulin sensitivity or clearance. Insulin secretion and glucose tolerance did not differ significantly between groups, but 65% of participants with CKD had impaired glucose tolerance. In conclusion, moderate-severe CKD associated with reductions in insulin sensitivity and clearance that are explained, in part, by differences in lifestyle and body composition. We did not observe a CKD-specific deficit in insulin secretion, but the combination of insulin resistance and inadequate augmentation of insulin secretion led to a high prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance.
Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.