PURPOSE - Enzalutamide, a potent oral androgen receptor inhibitor, improves survival in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) before and after chemotherapy. Bicalutamide, a nonsteroidal antiandrogen, is widely used to treat men with nonmetastatic or metastatic CRPC. The efficacy and safety of these drugs were compared in this randomized, double-blind, phase II study of men with CRPC.
PATIENTS AND METHODS - A total of 396 men with nonmetastatic (n = 139) or metastatic (n = 257) CRPC were randomly assigned to enzalutamide 160 mg per day (n = 198) or bicalutamide 50 mg per day (n = 198). Androgen deprivation therapy was continued in both arms. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS).
RESULTS - Enzalutamide reduced the risk of progression or death by 76% compared with bicalutamide (hazard ratio [HR], 0.24; 95% CI, 0.18 to 0.32; P < .001). Median PFS was 19.4 months with enzalutamide versus 5.7 months with bicalutamide. Enzalutamide resulted in significant improvements in all key secondary end points: time to prostate-specific antigen progression (HR, 0.19; 95% CI, 0.14 to 0.26; P < .001); proportion of patients with a ≥ 50% prostate-specific antigen response (81% v 31%; P < .001); and radiographic PFS in metastatic patients (HR, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.21 to 0.50; P < .001). Beneficial effects with enzalutamide were observed in both nonmetastatic and metastatic subgroups. The observed adverse event profile was consistent with that from phase III enzalutamide trials.
CONCLUSION - Enzalutamide significantly reduced risk of prostate cancer progression or death compared with bicalutamide in patients with nonmetastatic or metastatic CRPC.
© 2016 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.