Insect immunology and hematopoiesis.

Hillyer JF
Dev Comp Immunol. 2016 58: 102-18

PMID: 26695127 · PMCID: PMC4775421 · DOI:10.1016/j.dci.2015.12.006

Insects combat infection by mounting powerful immune responses that are mediated by hemocytes, the fat body, the midgut, the salivary glands and other tissues. Foreign organisms that have entered the body of an insect are recognized by the immune system when pathogen-associated molecular patterns bind host-derived pattern recognition receptors. This, in turn, activates immune signaling pathways that amplify the immune response, induce the production of factors with antimicrobial activity, and activate effector pathways. Among the immune signaling pathways are the Toll, Imd, Jak/Stat, JNK, and insulin pathways. Activation of these and other pathways leads to pathogen killing via phagocytosis, melanization, cellular encapsulation, nodulation, lysis, RNAi-mediated virus destruction, autophagy and apoptosis. This review details these and other aspects of immunity in insects, and discusses how the immune and circulatory systems have co-adapted to combat infection, how hemocyte replication and differentiation takes place (hematopoiesis), how an infection prepares an insect for a subsequent infection (immune priming), how environmental factors such as temperature and the age of the insect impact the immune response, and how social immunity protects entire groups. Finally, this review highlights some underexplored areas in the field of insect immunobiology.

Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

MeSH Terms (12)

Animals Apoptosis Autophagy Hematopoiesis Hemocytes Host-Pathogen Interactions Immunity, Innate Insecta Insect Proteins Insect Viruses Phagocytosis Receptors, Pattern Recognition

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