Surgical management of medically refractory epilepsy in patients with polymicrogyria.

Wang DD, Knox R, Rolston JD, Englot DJ, Barkovich AJ, Tihan T, Auguste KI, Knowlton RC, Cornes SB, Chang EF
Epilepsia. 2016 57 (1): 151-61

PMID: 26647903 · PMCID: PMC5237579 · DOI:10.1111/epi.13264

OBJECTIVE - Polymicrogyria (PMG) is a malformation of cortical development characterized by formation of an excessive number of small gyri. Sixty percent to 85% of patients with PMG have epilepsy that is refractory to medication, but surgical options are usually limited. We characterize a cohort of patient with polymicrogyria who underwent epilepsy surgery and document seizure outcomes.

METHODS - A retrospective study of all patients with PMG who underwent epilepsy surgery (focal seizure foci resection and/or hemispherectomy) at our center was performed by review of all clinical data related to their treatment.

RESULTS - We identified 12 patients (7 males and 5 female) with mean age of 18 (ranging from 3 months to 44 years) at time of surgery. Mean age at seizure onset was 8 years, with the majority (83%) having childhood onset. Six patients had focal, five had multifocal, and one patient had diffuse PMG. Perisylvian PMG was the most common pattern seen on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Eight patients had other cortical malformations including hemimegalencephaly and cortical dysplasia. Scalp electroencephalography (EEG) often showed diffuse epileptic discharges that poorly lateralized but were focal on intracranial electrocorticography (ECoG). Eight patients underwent seizure foci resection and four underwent hemispherectomy. Mean follow-up was 7 years (ranging from one to 19 years). Six patients (50%) were seizure-free at last follow-up. One patient had rare seizures (Engel class II). Three patients were Engel class III, having either decreased seizure frequency or severity, and two patients were Engel class IV. Gross total resection of the PMG cortex trended toward good seizure control.

SIGNIFICANCE - Our study shows that even in patients with extensive or bilateral PMG malformations, some may still be good candidates for surgery because the epileptogenic zone may involve only a portion of the malformation. Intracranial ECoG can provide additional localizing information compared to scalp EEG in guiding resection of epileptogenic foci.

Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 International League Against Epilepsy.

MeSH Terms (18)

Adolescent Adult Analysis of Variance Child Child, Preschool Drug Resistant Epilepsy Electroencephalography Female Humans Infant Longitudinal Studies Magnetic Resonance Imaging Male Neurosurgical Procedures Polymicrogyria Retrospective Studies Treatment Outcome Young Adult

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