CDIs are on the rise in both hospital and community settings in adults and children. Children with cancer or a history of HSCT or SOT appear to be at higher risk for primary disease, recurrent disease, and severe outcomes when compared to children with other comorbidities. The reasons for this are not clear and no studies to date have analyzed risk factors for CDI in pediatric transplant patients. Colonization rates in children with cancer and a transplant history are also high. Determining which children are colonized with Clostridium difficile and symptomatic from another source vs. symptomatic from CDI is difficult and a clinical conundrum for the transplant physician. The use of fecal transplantation for severe or rCDI is likely safe and effective in the immunosuppressed pediatric cancer or transplant patient, but this will need to be more thoroughly studied in this patient population.
© 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.