BACKGROUND - We performed a discovery phase of urinary proteomic profile in children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome and validated selected biomarkers.
METHODS - Urinary proteomic profile was performed using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation labeling, coupled with liquid chromatography-matrix assisted laser desorption and ionization analysis. Validation of biomarkers apolipoprotein A1, alpha 2 macroglobulin, orosomucoid 2, retinol binding protein 4 and leucine-rich alpha 2-glycoprotein 1 was done by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
RESULTS - Apolipoprotein A1 levels of <0.48 µg/mg of creatinine-differentiated steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) from first episode nephrotic syndrome, area under curve (AUC) [0.99 (CI 0.9-1.0), 100 % sensitivity and 100 % specificity] and a value of <0.24 µg/mg of creatinine could differentiate SRNS from frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome/steroid dependent nephrotic syndrome [AUC 0.99 (CI 0.9-1.0), 100 % sensitivity and 100 % specificity]. Alpha 2 macroglobulin could differentiate children with SRNS-focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) from SRNS-minimal change disease (MCD) at values >3.3 µg/mg of creatinine [AUC 0.84 (CI 0.62-1.0), 90 % sensitivity and 85 % specificity]. Orosomucoid 2 >1.81 µg/mg of creatinine could distinguish SRNS-FSGS from SRNS-MCD [AUC 0.84 (CI 0.62-1.0), sensitivity 90 % and specificity 85.5 %]. RBP 4 value of >1.54 µg/mg of creatinine differentiated SRNS-FSGS from SRNS-MCD [AUC 0.87 (CI 0.68-1.0), sensitivity 90 % and specificity 85.7 %].
CONCLUSIONS - Lower level of apolipoprotein A1 in urine is suggestive of SRNS. Alpha 2 macroglobulin, retinol binding protein 4 and orosomucoid 2 are markers associated with FSGS, with alpha 2 macroglobulin being most predictive.