Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a leading health issue worldwide. Among cases of diabetes mellitus nephropathy (DN), the major complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus, the nephrotic phenotype is often intractable to clinical intervention and demonstrates the rapid decline of renal function to end-stage renal disease. We recently identified the gene for glypican-5 (GPC5), a cell-surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan, as conferring susceptibility for acquired nephrotic syndrome and additionally identified an association through a genome-wide association study between a variant in GPC5 and DN of type 2 diabetes mellitus. In vivo and in vitro data showed a progressive increase of GPC5 in type 2 DN along with severity; the excess was derived from glomerular mesangial cells. In this study, diabetic kidney showed that accumulation of fibroblast growth factor (Fgf)2 strikingly induced progressive proteinuria that was avoided in Gpc5 knockdown mice. The efficacy of Gpc5 inhibition was exerted through expression of the Fgf receptors 3 and 4 provoked in the diabetic kidney attributively. Extraglomerular Fgf2 was pathogenic in DN, and the deterrence of Gpc5 effectively inhibited the glomerular accumulation of Fgf2, the subsequent increase of mesangial extracellular matrix, and the podocytes' small GTPase activity. These findings elucidate the pivotal role of GPC5, identified as a susceptible gene in the genome-wide association study, in hyperglycemia-induced glomerulopathy.
Copyright © 2015 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.