Loss of FOXA1 Drives Sexually Dimorphic Changes in Urothelial Differentiation and Is an Independent Predictor of Poor Prognosis in Bladder Cancer.

Reddy OL, Cates JM, Gellert LL, Crist HS, Yang Z, Yamashita H, Taylor JA, Smith JA, Chang SS, Cookson MS, You C, Barocas DA, Grabowska MM, Ye F, Wu XR, Yi Y, Matusik RJ, Kaestner KH, Clark PE, DeGraff DJ
Am J Pathol. 2015 185 (5): 1385-95

PMID: 25907831 · PMCID: PMC4419202 · DOI:10.1016/j.ajpath.2015.01.014

We previously found loss of forkhead box A1 (FOXA1) expression to be associated with aggressive urothelial carcinoma of the bladder, as well as increased tumor proliferation and invasion. These initial findings were substantiated by The Cancer Genome Atlas, which identified FOXA1 mutations in a subset of bladder cancers. However, the prognostic significance of FOXA1 inactivation and the effect of FOXA1 loss on urothelial differentiation remain unknown. Application of a univariate analysis (log-rank) and a multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression model revealed that loss of FOXA1 expression is an independent predictor of decreased overall survival. An ubiquitin Cre-driven system ablating Foxa1 expression in urothelium of adult mice resulted in sex-specific histologic alterations, with male mice developing urothelial hyperplasia and female mice developing keratinizing squamous metaplasia. Microarray analysis confirmed these findings and revealed a significant increase in cytokeratin 14 expression in the urothelium of the female Foxa1 knockout mouse and an increase in the expression of a number of genes normally associated with keratinocyte differentiation. IHC confirmed increased cytokeratin 14 expression in female bladders and additionally revealed enrichment of cytokeratin 14-positive basal cells in the hyperplastic urothelial mucosa in male Foxa1 knockout mice. Analysis of human tumor specimens confirmed a significant relationship between loss of FOXA1 and increased cytokeratin 14 expression.

Copyright © 2015 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

MeSH Terms (24)

Aged Animals Biomarkers, Tumor Carcinoma, Transitional Cell Cell Differentiation Disease Models, Animal Female Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 3-alpha Humans Immunohistochemistry Kaplan-Meier Estimate Keratin-14 Male Mice Mice, Knockout Middle Aged Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis Prognosis Proportional Hazards Models Sex Characteristics Tissue Array Analysis Transcriptome Urinary Bladder Neoplasms Urothelium

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