Androgen deprivation therapy reversibly increases endothelium-dependent vasodilation in men with prostate cancer.

Nguyen PL, Jarolim P, Basaria S, Zuflacht JP, Milian J, Kadivar S, Graham PL, Hyatt A, Kantoff PW, Beckman JA
J Am Heart Assoc. 2015 4 (4)

PMID: 25896892 · PMCID: PMC4579953 · DOI:10.1161/JAHA.115.001914

BACKGROUND - Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is a standard treatment for patients with aggressive prostate cancer. Although ADT improves survival, it increases the risk of diabetes. Emerging evidence suggests that ADT increases adverse cardiovascular events as early as 3 months after initiation in patients with cardiovascular disease, but the mechanism is unknown. We hypothesized that ADT may impair endothelium-dependent vasodilation due to increases in lipids and insulin resistance and may provide a link for heightened cardiovascular risk in this population.

METHODS AND RESULTS - We prospectively evaluated conduit artery endothelium-dependent and -independent vasodilation, lipids, and insulin resistance in 16 consecutively treated men (mean age 66 ± 7 years; 25% with diabetes) with prostate cancer before and after 3 months of ADT. High-resolution B-mode ultrasound was used to assess flow-mediated (endothelium-dependent) and nitroglycerine-mediated (endothelium-independent) brachial artery vasodilation. ADT significantly increased insulin resistance, total cholesterol, HDL, and LDL. Endothelium-dependent vasodilation was greater at 3 months than at baseline (10.8% [interquartile range: 7.7% to 14.6%] versus 8.9% [interquartile range: 4.0% to 12.6%], respectively; P=0.046, allometric P=0.037). Nitroglycerine-mediated vasodilation did not change from baseline (P>0.2). The subset of participants on ADT for 6 months returned for reevaluation at 1 year. In this group, endothelium-dependent vasodilation increased from baseline to 3 months and returned to baseline 6 months after ADT withdrawal (9.4% [interquartile range: 6.9% to 10.9%], 11.6% [interquartile range: 7.9% to 15.2%], and 9.0% [interquartile range: 5.1% to 12.5%], respectively; P=0.05).

CONCLUSIONS - In contrast to our expectation, ADT improved endothelium-dependent vasodilation and its cessation returned endothelium-dependent vasodilation to baseline. Determining the mechanism of this change requires further investigation.

© 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

MeSH Terms (13)

Aged Androgen Antagonists Anilides Brachial Artery Drug Therapy, Combination Endothelium, Vascular Humans Leuprolide Male Nitriles Prostatic Neoplasms Tosyl Compounds Vasodilation

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