PURPOSE OF REVIEW - To summarize current knowledge and provide perspective on relationships between human genetic variants, antiretroviral medications, and aging-related complications of HIV-1 infection.
RECENT FINDINGS - Human genetic variants have been convincingly associated with interindividual variability in antiretroviral toxicities, drug disposition, and aging-associated complications in HIV-1 infection. Screening for HLA-B5701 to avoid abacavir hypersensitivity reactions has become a routine part of clinical care, and has markedly improved drug safety. There are well established pharmacogenetic associations with other agents (efavirenz, nevirapine, atazanavir, dolutegravir, and others), but this knowledge has yet to have substantial impact on HIV-1 clinical care. As metabolic complications including diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, osteoporosis, and cardiovascular disease are becoming an increasing concern among individuals who are aging with well controlled HIV-1 infection, human genetic variants that predispose to these complications also become more relevant in this population.
SUMMARY - Pharmacogenetic knowledge has already had considerable impact on antiretroviral prescribing. With continued advances in the field of human genomics, the impact of pharmacogenomics on HIV-1 clinical care and research is likely to continue to grow in importance and scope.