We quantitated the glomerular size and the degree of sclerosis simultaneously in individual glomeruli with the use of three-dimensional histological analysis on serial sections obtained from remnant kidneys with highly heterogeneous glomerular lesions after subtotal nephrectomy (sNPX). Four to six weeks after sNPX (Group I, N = 7), 90% of glomeruli had mild sclerosis (sclerosis index, SI; less than 1.5 on a 0 to 4 scale) with a strong positive correlation between the maximum planar area of glomerulus (PAmax) versus SI. Twelve weeks after sNPX (Group II, N = 6) more than 50% of glomeruli had advanced sclerosis (average SI:1.88), and a significant positive correlation was again found between PAmax and SI in glomeruli with mild to modest sclerosis (SI less than 1.5), whereas these two variables were correlated inversely in glomeruli with advanced sclerosis. Administration of enalapril (50 mg/liter drinking water) or hydralazine (200 mg/liter) + hydrochlorothiazide (50 mg/liter) for 12 weeks (Group III, N = 12) markedly attenuated the sclerosis to comparable degrees (average SI: 0.15 vs. 0.22). The former antihypertensive therapy decreased glomerular capillary hydraulic pressure (PGC) to normal range, whereas the latter triple drug therapy was largely without effect on PGC. Of note, the positive correlation between SI and PAmax remained unaffected by these anti-hypertensive drugs. SI of the glomeruli from both treated groups was expressed as a first-order function of PAmax. The correlation coefficient is identical to that found in non-treated Group II remnant glomeruli, so that the degree of sclerosis is mathematically uniquely correlated with the glomerular size, regardless of drug treatment. Thus, within a given remnant kidney, the magnitude of glomerular hypertrophy has a direct correlation with the degree of sclerosis, while the altered glomerular hemodynamic pattern has little modulatory role in determining the magnitude of this hypertrophy. Enalapril and triple drug therapy, at equi-depressor doses in regard to systemic blood pressure, had identical potency in sparing glomerular structure. The primary determinant for this antisclerotic potency appears to be related to the drugs' potency to inhibit glomerular growth rather than an effect on the abnormal hemodynamics which develop in the glomerulus.