Pyridoxamine dihydrochloride in diabetic nephropathy (PIONEER-CSG-17): lessons learned from a pilot study.

Dwyer JP, Greco BA, Umanath K, Packham D, Fox JW, Peterson R, Broome BR, Greene LE, Sika M, Lewis JB
Nephron. 2015 129 (1): 22-8

PMID: 25532068 · DOI:10.1159/000369310

BACKGROUND/AIMS - Pyridoxamine dihydrochloride (Pyridorin™) blocks pathogenic oxidative pathways in the progression of diabetic nephropathy. The pyridoxamine pilot study was designed to test entry criteria and outcomes. Subjects had SCr 1.3-3.5 mg/dl, protein-to-creatinine ≥1,200 mg/g and used a surrogate outcome of ΔSCr over 52 weeks. Subjects had to be on a maximally tolerated dose of ACE/ARB for 3 months; stable other antihypertensive doses for 2 months; stable diuretic dose for 2 weeks, and BP ≤160/90 mm Hg; or enter a Pharmaco-Stabilization Phase (PSP). This pilot failed to detect an effect on ΔSCr in intent-to-treat analysis.

METHODS - We queried the locked clinical trial database for subgroups in which there was a treatment effect.

RESULTS - Subjects not requiring PSP and those with entry SCr <2.0 mg/dl had a treatment effect. Subjects entering PSP required more changes in antihypertensive medications and experienced larger ΔSCr over 52 weeks. PSP subjects with BP >140/90 mm Hg had no treatment effect, but those ≤140/90 mm Hg did.

CONCLUSION - Time required for acute effects of ACE/ARB to stabilize is unknown, but these data suggest >3 months. Thus, subjects in the pivotal trial must be on ACE/ARB for 6 months. Frequent antihypertensive adjustment could engender SCr changes unrelated to CKD progression. Thus, we will require subjects to have BP ≤150/90 mm Hg and on stable antihypertensives for 26 weeks, or ≤140/90 mm Hg and on stable antihypertensives for 13 weeks. Since ΔSCr over 52 weeks is limited as a surrogate outcome, the pivotal trial uses a time-to-event analysis of baseline SCr to at least a 50% increase in SCr or ESRD as the primary outcome. This substantial ΔSCr is protected from noise and is clinically relevant. The pyridoxamine pilot provided critical information to inform the design of PIONEER-CSG-17, which we conducted under the SPA agreement with FDA.

MeSH Terms (15)

Aged Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors Antihypertensive Agents Antioxidants Creatinine Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 Diabetic Nephropathies Diuretics Double-Blind Method Drug Therapy, Combination Female Humans Male Pilot Projects Pyridoxamine

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