OBJECTIVES - The purpose of this study was to determine whether multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) and diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI), obtained before and after the first cycle of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC), is superior to single-parameter measurements for predicting pathologic complete response (pCR) in patients with breast cancer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS - Patients with stage II/III breast cancer were enrolled in an institutional review board-approved study in which 3-T DCE-MRI and DWI data were acquired before (n = 42) and after 1 cycle (n = 36) of NAC. Estimates of the volume transfer rate (K), extravascular extracellular volume fraction (ve), blood plasma volume fraction (vp), and the efflux rate constant (kep = K/ve) were generated from the DCE-MRI data using the Extended Tofts-Kety model. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was estimated from the DWI data. The derived parameter kep/ADC was compared with single-parameter measurements for its ability to predict pCR after the first cycle of NAC.
RESULTS - The kep/ADC after the first cycle of NAC discriminated patients who went on to achieve a pCR (P < 0.001) and achieved a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and area under the receiver operator curve (AUC) of 0.92, 0.78, 0.69, and 0.88, respectively. These values were superior to the single parameters kep (AUC, 0.76) and ADC (AUC, 0.82). The AUCs between kep/ADC and kep were significantly different on the basis of the bootstrapped 95% confidence intervals (0.018-0.23), whereas the AUCs between kep/ADC and ADC trended toward significance (-0.11 to 0.24).
CONCLUSIONS - The multiparametric analysis of DCE-MRI and DWI was superior to the single-parameter measurements for predicting pCR after the first cycle of NAC.