The "genomic storm" induced by bacterial endotoxin is calmed by a nuclear transport modifier that attenuates localized and systemic inflammation.

DiGiandomenico A, Veach RA, Zienkiewicz J, Moore DJ, Wylezinski LS, Hutchens MA, Hawiger J
PLoS One. 2014 9 (10): e110183

PMID: 25329889 · PMCID: PMC4203769 · DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0110183

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a potent microbial virulence factor that can trigger production of proinflammatory mediators involved in the pathogenesis of localized and systemic inflammation. Importantly, the role of nuclear transport of stress responsive transcription factors in this LPS-generated "genomic storm" remains largely undefined. We developed a new nuclear transport modifier (NTM) peptide, cell-penetrating cSN50.1, which targets nuclear transport shuttles importin α5 and importin β1, to analyze its effect in LPS-induced localized (acute lung injury) and systemic (lethal endotoxic shock) murine inflammation models. We analyzed a human genome database to match 46 genes that encode cytokines, chemokines and their receptors with transcription factors whose nuclear transport is known to be modulated by NTM. We then tested the effect of cSN50.1 peptide on proinflammatory gene expression in murine bone marrow-derived macrophages stimulated with LPS. This NTM suppressed a proinflammatory transcriptome of 37 out of 84 genes analyzed, without altering expression of housekeeping genes or being cytotoxic. Consistent with gene expression analysis in primary macrophages, plasma levels of 23 out of 26 LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors were significantly attenuated in a murine model of LPS-induced systemic inflammation (lethal endotoxic shock) while the anti-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin 10, was enhanced. This anti-inflammatory reprogramming of the endotoxin-induced genomic response was accompanied by complete protection against lethal endotoxic shock with prophylactic NTM treatment, and 75% protection when NTM was first administered after LPS exposure. In a murine model of localized lung inflammation caused by direct airway exposure to LPS, expression of cytokines and chemokines in the bronchoalveolar space was suppressed with a concomitant reduction of neutrophil trafficking. Thus, calming the LPS-triggered "genomic storm" by modulating nuclear transport with cSN50.1 peptide attenuates the systemic inflammatory response associated with lethal shock as well as localized lung inflammation.

MeSH Terms (16)

Active Transport, Cell Nucleus Animals Bone Marrow Cells Cell-Penetrating Peptides Cell Nucleus Chemokines Gene Expression Regulation Genome, Human Humans Lipopolysaccharides Macrophages Mice Pneumonia Shock, Septic Transcription Factors Transcriptome

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