Conformational cycle and ion-coupling mechanism of the Na+/hydantoin transporter Mhp1.

Kazmier K, Sharma S, Islam SM, Roux B, Mchaourab HS
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 111 (41): 14752-7

PMID: 25267652 · PMCID: PMC4205665 · DOI:10.1073/pnas.1410431111

Ion-dependent transporters of the LeuT-fold couple the uptake of physiologically essential molecules to transmembrane ion gradients. Defined by a conserved 5-helix inverted repeat that encodes common principles of ion and substrate binding, the LeuT-fold has been captured in outward-facing, occluded, and inward-facing conformations. However, fundamental questions relating to the structural basis of alternating access and coupling to ion gradients remain unanswered. Here, we used distance measurements between pairs of spin labels to define the conformational cycle of the Na(+)-coupled hydantoin symporter Mhp1 from Microbacterium liquefaciens. Our results reveal that the inward-facing and outward-facing Mhp1 crystal structures represent sampled intermediate states in solution. Here, we provide a mechanistic context for these structures, mapping them into a model of transport based on ion- and substrate-dependent conformational equilibria. In contrast to the Na(+)/leucine transporter LeuT, our results suggest that Na(+) binding at the conserved second Na(+) binding site does not change the energetics of the inward- and outward-facing conformations of Mhp1. Comparative analysis of ligand-dependent alternating access in LeuT and Mhp1 lead us to propose that different coupling schemes to ion gradients may define distinct conformational mechanisms within the LeuT-fold class.

MeSH Terms (12)

Actinomycetales Bacterial Proteins Crystallography, X-Ray Extracellular Space Hydantoins Ions Ion Transport Ligands Models, Molecular Protein Conformation Sodium Substrate Specificity

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