OBJECTIVES - Efavirenz is widely prescribed for HIV-1 infection. Three polymorphisms in CYP2B6 define plasma efavirenz trough concentration strata that vary across an ∼10-fold range. We characterized associations between human genetic polymorphisms and virologic response among participants who received efavirenz-containing regimens in a prospective clinical trial.
METHODS - We genotyped 76 polymorphisms in CYP2B6 (including those that define efavirenz concentration strata), CYP2A6, CYP3A4, CYP3A5 and ABCB1 and week 48 virologic responses in 360 Haitians who initiated efavirenz-containing regimens in protocol HT 001. Associations were characterized by logistic regression analysis and Fisher's exact test.
RESULTS - Proportions with HIV-1 RNA <50 or <200 copies/mL did not differ across 10 CYP2B6 metabolizer strata. In analyses that combined strata into three metabolizer levels (extensive, intermediate and slow), the respective proportions were 0.79, 0.79 and 0.81 (<50 copies/mL cut-off) and 0.84, 0.86 and 0.87 (<200 copies/mL cut-off). Genetic associations were not identified after controlling for baseline variables or with other polymorphisms after adjusting for multiple comparisons.
CONCLUSIONS - Virologic failures in HT 001 were not explained by genetic polymorphisms known to define the lowest plasma efavirenz concentration stratum.
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