Validation of cell-cycle arrest biomarkers for acute kidney injury using clinical adjudication.

Bihorac A, Chawla LS, Shaw AD, Al-Khafaji A, Davison DL, Demuth GE, Fitzgerald R, Gong MN, Graham DD, Gunnerson K, Heung M, Jortani S, Kleerup E, Koyner JL, Krell K, Letourneau J, Lissauer M, Miner J, Nguyen HB, Ortega LM, Self WH, Sellman R, Shi J, Straseski J, Szalados JE, Wilber ST, Walker MG, Wilson J, Wunderink R, Zimmerman J, Kellum JA
Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2014 189 (8): 932-9

PMID: 24559465 · DOI:10.1164/rccm.201401-0077OC

RATIONALE - We recently reported two novel biomarkers for acute kidney injury (AKI), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP)-2 and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 7 (IGFBP7), both related to G1 cell cycle arrest.

OBJECTIVES - We now validate a clinical test for urinary [TIMP-2]·[IGFBP7] at a high-sensitivity cutoff greater than 0.3 for AKI risk stratification in a diverse population of critically ill patients.

METHODS - We conducted a prospective multicenter study of 420 critically ill patients. The primary analysis was the ability of urinary [TIMP-2]·[IGFBP7] to predict moderate to severe AKI within 12 hours. AKI was adjudicated by a committee of three independent expert nephrologists who were masked to the results of the test.

MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS - Urinary TIMP-2 and IGFBP7 were measured using a clinical immunoassay platform. The primary endpoint was reached in 17% of patients. For a single urinary [TIMP-2]·[IGFBP7] test, sensitivity at the prespecified high-sensitivity cutoff of 0.3 (ng/ml)(2)/1,000 was 92% (95% confidence interval [CI], 85-98%) with a negative likelihood ratio of 0.18 (95% CI, 0.06-0.33). Critically ill patients with urinary [TIMP-2]·[IGFBP7] greater than 0.3 had seven times the risk for AKI (95% CI, 4-22) compared with critically ill patients with a test result below 0.3. In a multivariate model including clinical information, urinary [TIMP-2]·[IGFBP7] remained statistically significant and a strong predictor of AKI (area under the curve, 0.70, 95% CI, 0.63-0.76 for clinical variables alone, vs. area under the curve, 0.86, 95% CI, 0.80-0.90 for clinical variables plus [TIMP-2]·[IGFBP7]).

CONCLUSIONS - Urinary [TIMP-2]·[IGFBP7] greater than 0.3 (ng/ml)(2)/1,000 identifies patients at risk for imminent AKI. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT 01573962).

MeSH Terms (20)

Acute Kidney Injury Aged Aged, 80 and over Biomarkers Cell Death Cohort Studies Critical Illness Female Humans Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Proteins Male Middle Aged Predictive Value of Tests Prospective Studies Protease Inhibitors Sensitivity and Specificity Severity of Illness Index Time Factors Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-2 United States

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