BACKGROUND - To date, there are no known estimates of the prevalence of chronic kidney disease within Cambodia, the vast majority of whose citizens live in rural areas with limited access to renal replacement therapy.
METHODS - Observational analysis of patients from the Takeo province in Cambodia who presented to MoPoTsyo, a non-governmental organization, for screening and management of diabetes mellitus between 2010 and 2012 (n = 402; 75% females). Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the CKD-Epi equation.
RESULTS - On average, women were younger, with a higher percentage of hypercholesterolemia but also high-density lipoprotein level. Men had a higher serum creatinine level (1.31 mg/dl) than that of women (1.13 mg/dl) at 95% CI. More than half of all screened patients had a reduced eGFR; 60% (95% CI 55%, 65%) had an eGFR<60 ml/min/1.73 m(2); 54% (49%, 59%) had an eGFR 30-60 ml/min/1.73 m(2), and 5.7% (3.4%, 8.0%) with eGFR 15-30 ml/min/1.73 m(2). Women had a greater prevalence of stage 3 CKD (57% women vs. 47% men) and stage 4 CKD (7.0% vs. 2.0%). The adjusted odds ratio for females compared to males having an eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) was 3.19 (95% CI 1.78, 5.43; p value<0.001). Thirty-two percent of patients lost ≥ 5 ml/min/1.73 m2 eGFR during median follow-up time of 433 days (IQR 462 days) days.
CONCLUSIONS - Over one-half of Cambodians with diabetes mellitus had reduced eGFR, implying a point-prevalence of chronic kidney disease of 1.2% in among adult Cambodians within the country. This high burden of kidney disease in a society that lacks universal access to renal replacement therapy underscores the importance of early diagnosis - a largely unmet need in Cambodia.