Osteal macrophages support physiologic skeletal remodeling and anabolic actions of parathyroid hormone in bone.

Cho SW, Soki FN, Koh AJ, Eber MR, Entezami P, Park SI, van Rooijen N, McCauley LK
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 111 (4): 1545-50

PMID: 24406853 · PMCID: PMC3910564 · DOI:10.1073/pnas.1315153111

Cellular subpopulations in the bone marrow play distinct and unexplored functions in skeletal homeostasis. This study delineated a unique role of osteal macrophages in bone and parathyroid hormone (PTH)-dependent bone anabolism using murine models of targeted myeloid-lineage cell ablation. Depletion of c-fms(+) myeloid lineage cells [via administration of AP20187 in the macrophage Fas-induced apoptosis (MAFIA) mouse model] reduced cortical and trabecular bone mass and attenuated PTH-induced trabecular bone anabolism, supporting the positive function of macrophages in bone homeostasis. Interestingly, using a clodronate liposome model with targeted depletion of mature phagocytic macrophages an opposite effect was found with increased trabecular bone mass and increased PTH-induced anabolism. Apoptotic cells were more numerous in MAFIA versus clodronate-treated mice and flow cytometric analyses of myeloid lineage cells in the bone marrow showed that MAFIA mice had reduced CD68(+) cells, whereas clodronate liposome-treated mice had increased CD68(+) and CD163(+) cells. Clodronate liposomes increased efferocytosis (clearance of apoptotic cells) and gene expression associated with alternatively activated M2 macrophages as well as expression of genes associated with bone formation including Wnt3a, Wnt10b, and Tgfb1. Taken together, depletion of early lineage macrophages resulted in osteopenia with blunted effects of PTH anabolic actions, whereas depletion of differentiated macrophages promoted apoptotic cell clearance and transformed the bone marrow to an osteogenic environment with enhanced PTH anabolism. These data highlight a unique function for osteal macrophages in skeletal homeostasis.

MeSH Terms (11)

Animals Bone and Bones Bone Remodeling Clodronic Acid Female Flow Cytometry Liposomes Macrophages Mice Parathyroid Hormone Phagocytosis

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