Multianalyte microphysiometry reveals changes in cellular bioenergetics upon exposure to fluorescent dyes.

Shinawi TF, Kimmel DW, Cliffel DE
Anal Chem. 2013 85 (24): 11677-80

PMID: 24228839 · PMCID: PMC3900241 · DOI:10.1021/ac402764x

Fluorescent dyes have been designed for internal cellular component specificity and have been used extensively in the scientific community as a means to monitor cell growth, location, morphology, and viability. However, it is possible that the introduction of these dyes influences the basal function of the cell and, in turn, the results of these studies. Electrochemistry provides a noninvasive method for probing the unintended cellular affects of these dyes. The multianalyte microphysiometer (MAMP) is capable of simultaneous electrochemical measurement of extracellular metabolites in real-time. In this study, analytes central to cellular metabolism, glucose, lactate, oxygen, as well as extracellular acidification were monitored to determine the immediate metabolic effects of nuclear stains, including SYTO, DAPI dilactate, Hoechst 33342, and FITC dyes upon the pheochromocytoma PC-12 cells and RAW 264.7 macrophages. The experimental results revealed that the SYTO dye 13 significantly decreased glucose and oxygen consumption and increased extracellular acidification and lactate production in both cell lines, indicating a shift to anaerobic respiration. No other dyes caused significantly definitive changes in cellular metabolism upon exposure. This study shows that fluorescent dyes can have unintended effects on cellular metabolism and care should be taken when using these probes to investigate cellular function and morphology.

MeSH Terms (9)

Animals Electrochemistry Energy Metabolism Extracellular Space Fluorescent Dyes Metabolomics Mice PC12 Cells Rats

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