Effect of age, tumor risk, and comorbidity on competing risks for survival in a U.S. population-based cohort of men with prostate cancer.

Daskivich TJ, Fan KH, Koyama T, Albertsen PC, Goodman M, Hamilton AS, Hoffman RM, Stanford JL, Stroup AM, Litwin MS, Penson DF
Ann Intern Med. 2013 158 (10): 709-17

PMID: 23689764 · PMCID: PMC3760479 · DOI:10.7326/0003-4819-158-10-201305210-00005

BACKGROUND - Accurate estimation of life expectancy is essential to offering appropriate care to men with early-stage prostate cancer, but mortality risks associated with comorbidity are poorly defined.

OBJECTIVE - To determine the effect of age, comorbidity, and tumor risk on other-cause and prostate cancer-specific mortality in men with early-stage disease.

DESIGN - Prospective cohort study.

SETTING - A nationally representative, population-based cohort.

PATIENTS - 3183 men with nonmetastatic prostate cancer at diagnosis.

MEASUREMENTS - Baseline self-reported comorbidity (scored as a count of 12 major comorbid conditions), tumor characteristics, initial treatment, and overall and disease-specific mortality through 14 years of follow-up. Survival analyses that accounted for competing risks were performed.

RESULTS - Fourteen-year cumulative other-cause mortality rates were 24%, 33%, 46%, and 57% for men with 0, 1, 2, and 3 or more comorbid conditions, respectively. For men diagnosed at age 65 years, subhazard ratios for other-cause mortality among those with 1, 2, or 3 or more comorbid conditions (vs. none) were 1.2 (95% CI, 1.0 to 1.4), 1.7 (CI, 1.4 to 2.0), and 2.4 (CI, 2.0 to 2.8), respectively. Among men with 3 or more comorbid conditions, 10-year other-cause mortality rates were 26%, 40%, and 71% for those aged 60 years or younger, 61 to 74 years, and 75 years or older at diagnosis, respectively. Prostate cancer-specific mortality was minimal in patients with low-risk (3%) and intermediate-risk (7%) disease but appreciable in those with high-risk disease (18%) and did not vary by number of comorbid conditions (10% to 11% in all groups).

LIMITATION - Comorbid conditions were self-reported.

CONCLUSION - Older men with multiple major comorbid conditions are at high risk for other-cause mortality within 10 years of diagnosis and should consider this information when deciding between conservative management and aggressive treatment for low- or intermediate-risk prostate cancer.

PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE - National Cancer Institute.

MeSH Terms (13)

Aged Age Factors Cause of Death Comorbidity Humans Incidence Male Middle Aged Neoplasm Grading Neoplasm Staging Prospective Studies Prostatic Neoplasms Risk Factors

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