The objective of this study is to determine the vaccine effectiveness (VE) of the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5) for preventing rotavirus-related hospitalizations and emergency department (ED) visits during the 2006-07 and 2007-08 rotavirus seasons using two study designs. Active, prospective population-based surveillance was conducted to identify cases of laboratory-confirmed rotavirus-related hospitalizations and ED visits to be used in case-cohort and case-control designs. VE was calculated using one comparison group for the case-cohort method and two comparison groups for the case-control method. The VE estimates produced by the three analyses were similar. Three doses of RV5 were effective for preventing rotavirus-related hospitalizations and ED visits in each analysis, with VE estimated as 92% in all three analyses. Two doses of RV5 were also effective, with VE ranging from 79% to 83%. A single dose was effective in the case-cohort analysis, but was not significant in either of the case-control analyses. The case-cohort and the case-control study designs produced the same VE point estimates for completion of the three dose series. Two and three doses of RV5 were effective in preventing rotavirus-related hospitalizations and ED visits.
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