Vitamin D is a well-studied agent for cancer chemoprevention and treatment. Its chief circulating metabolite, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, is converted into the active hormone 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D) by the cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP27B1 in kidney and other tissues. 1,25D is then deactivated by CYP24A1 and ultimately catabolized. Colorectal carcinoma cells express CYP27B1 and CYP24A1 that locally regulate 1,25D with potential implications for its impact on carcinogenesis. While 1,25D inhibits cancer growth, the effects of polymorphic variations in genes encoding proteins involved in 1,25D homeostasis are poorly understood. Using an RXR-VDR mammalian two-hybrid (M2H) biologic assay system, we measured vitamin D metabolite uptake and activation of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) pathway in colon cancer cells that expressed one of five CYP27B1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) or four CYP24A1 SNPs. Compared with the wild-type control, four of five CYP27B1 SNPs reduced enzymatic activity, whereas one (V166L) increased activity. For CYP24A1, all tested SNPs reduced enzyme activity. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses supported the results of M2H experiments. The observed SNP-directed variation in CYP functionality indicated that vitamin D homeostasis is complex and may be influenced by genetic factors. A comprehensive understanding of 1,25D metabolism may allow for a more personalized approach toward treating vitamin D-related disorders and evaluating risk for carcinogenesis.