MafA and Pdx1 represent critical transcriptional regulators required for the maintenance of pancreatic islet β-cell function. The in vivo β-cell-enriched expression pattern of these genes is principally directed by islet transcription factors binding within conserved Region 3 (base pairs (bp) -8118/-7750) of MafA and Area II (bp -2153/-1923) of the Pdx1 gene. Comprehensive mutational analysis of conserved MafA Region 3 revealed two new β-cell line-specific cis-activation elements, termed Site 4 (bp -7997 to -7988) and Site 12 (bp -7835 to -7826). Gel mobility and antibody super-shift analysis identified Pdx1 as the Site 4 binding factor, while an 80-88 kilodalton (kDa) β-cell line-enriched protein complex bound Site 12 and similar aligned nucleotides within Pdx1 Area II. The 80-88 kDa activator was also found in adult mouse islet extract. Strikingly, the molecular weight, DNA binding, and antibody recognition properties of this activator were unique when compared with all other key islet transcription factors tested, including Prox1 (83 kDa), Hnf1α (67 kDa), FoxA2 (48 kDa), MafA (46 kDa), Isl1 (44 kDa), Pdx1 (42 kDa), and Nkx2.2 (30 kDa). Collectively, these data define an apparently novel MafA Region 3 and Pdx1 Area II activator contributing to expression in β-cells.