Use of an antibacterial envelope is associated with reduced cardiac implantable electronic device infections in high-risk patients.

Kolek MJ, Dresen WF, Wells QS, Ellis CR
Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2013 36 (3): 354-61

PMID: 23252988 · PMCID: PMC3949624 · DOI:10.1111/pace.12063

INTRODUCTION - The incidence of cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) infections has risen rapidly since 2004. A commercially available minocycline and rifampin impregnated antibacterial envelope has been associated with a low CIED infection rate. We performed a retrospective cohort study analyzing CIED infection rates in patients receiving an antibacterial envelope.

METHODS - Prospectively applied criteria for use of the antibacterial envelope included ≥2 of the following: diabetes, renal insufficiency, anticoagulation, chronic corticosteroid use, fever or leukocytosis at the time of implantation, prior CIED infection, ≥3 leads (cardiac resynchronization therapy or abandoned leads), pacemaker dependence, or early pocket reentry. CIED infection rate was compared to a cohort of patients with matched risk factors and a CIED implanted prior to use of the antibacterial envelope.

RESULTS - A total of 260 antibacterial envelopes were implanted from November 1, 2009 to April 30, 2012. The mean number of CIED infection risk factors was 2.8 ± 1.2. The control cohort (N = 639) was matched for mean number of CIED infection risk factors (2.8 ± 1.2), though individual risk factors differed. After a minimum of 90 days of follow-up, there was one CIED infection among patients who received an antibacterial envelope (0.4%), compared to 19 (3%) in controls (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] 0.13 [0.02-0.95], P = 0.04). This difference persisted after adjustment for covariates (0.09 [0.01-0.73], P = 0.02) and propensity score matching (0.11 [0.01-0.85], P = 0.04).

CONCLUSIONS - In patients prospectively identified at high risk for CIED infection, use of a commercially available antibacterial envelope was associated with a marked reduction in CIED infections when compared to a matched control cohort.

©2012, The Authors. Journal compilation ©2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

MeSH Terms (10)

Aged Anti-Bacterial Agents Female Humans Male Multivariate Analysis Pacemaker, Artificial Prospective Studies Prosthesis-Related Infections Risk Factors

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