The Th2 cytokines interleukin (IL)-4 and -13 are acknowledged regulators of lymphocyte proliferation and activation. They have also been well studied in the regulation of various myeloid-derived populations in tumor biology. It has become clear, however, that both cytokines can have direct effects on epithelial tumor cells expressing appropriate receptors. Changes in tumor proliferation, survival, and metastatic capability have all been ascribed to IL-4 and/or IL-13 action. Here, we evaluate the evidence to support direct tumor-promoting roles of these cytokines. We also identify the questions that should be addressed before proceeding with therapeutic approaches based on neutralization of IL-4 or IL-13 pathways.