Outcomes from vein graft bypass are limited by graft failure, leading causes of which include intimal hyperplasia and vasospasm. Intimal hyperplasia remains the most common cause of graft failure, but no therapeutic modalities have been shown to prevent intimal hyperplasia in humans. The small heat shock proteins are a class of naturally occurring proteins in vascular smooth muscle. These proteins have an integral role in maintenance of vascular tone and in cellular defense against various stressors. Transduction domains have enabled intracellular therapeutic delivery of peptide analogs of heat shock proteins, as well as peptide inhibitors of the kinases that phosphorylate these proteins. These cell-permeant peptides have been shown to prevent vasospasm and intimal hyperplasia in vitro. Since vascular bypass using vein grafts is analogous to autologous organ transplantation, ex vivo treatment of the vein graft with cell-permeant peptide inhibitors of vasospasm and intimal hyperplasia prior to implantation provides a unique opportunity for targeted treatment of the graft to improve patency.