Calcium intake and lung cancer risk among female nonsmokers: a report from the Shanghai Women's Health Study.

Takata Y, Shu XO, Yang G, Li H, Dai Q, Gao J, Cai Q, Gao YT, Zheng W
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2013 22 (1): 50-7

PMID: 23093548 · PMCID: PMC3538907 · DOI:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-12-0915-T

BACKGROUND - Calcium has been implicated in carcinogenesis and linked to the risk of several cancers in epidemiologic studies; however, few studies have investigated the association of calcium intake with lung cancer risk, particularly among nonsmokers.

METHODS - We evaluated the association of intakes of calcium and related minerals, assessed through a food frequency questionnaire, with lung cancer risk among 71,267 female nonsmokers who were cancer free at baseline in the Shanghai Women's Health Study, a population-based, prospective cohort study. Multivariate Cox regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI).

RESULTS - During follow-up through December 2009 (median follow-up time: 11.2 years), 428 incident lung cancer cases accrued. The median intakes of dietary calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus were 441, 266, and 935 mg/d, respectively. Intakes of calcium, phosphorus, and the calcium-to-magnesium (Ca:Mg) ratio were inversely associated with lung cancer risk. The corresponding HRs (95% CIs) for the highest compared with the lowest quartile were 0.66 (0.48, 0.91) for calcium, 0.55 (0.36, 0.85) for phosphorus, and 0.62 (0.47, 0.82) for the Ca:Mg ratio. No association was observed for dietary magnesium intake or the use of calcium- or vitamin D-containing supplements.

CONCLUSIONS AND IMPACT - Our study provides some of the first evidence suggesting a possible role for increasing dietary calcium intake in lung cancer prevention among female nonsmokers, especially in populations with relatively low calcium intake.

MeSH Terms (22)

Aged Age Distribution Calcium, Dietary China Cohort Studies Confidence Intervals Dietary Supplements Dose-Response Relationship, Drug Female Humans Lung Neoplasms Middle Aged Minerals Multivariate Analysis Prevalence Prognosis Proportional Hazards Models Prospective Studies Risk Assessment Smoking Survival Rate Women's Health

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