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CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE - To present a summary of the 2nd International Consultation on Bladder Cancer recommendations on the screening, diagnosis, and markers of bladder cancer using an evidence-based strategy.
EVIDENCE ACQUISITION - A detailed Medline analysis was performed for original articles addressing bladder cancer with regard to screening, diagnosis, markers, and pathology. Proceedings from the last 5 yr of major conferences were also searched.
EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS - The major findings are presented in an evidence-based fashion. Large retrospective and prospective data were analyzed.
CONCLUSIONS - Cystoscopy alone is the most cost-effective method to detect recurrence of bladder cancer. White-light cystoscopy is the gold standard for evaluation of the lower urinary tract; however, technology like fluorescence-aided cystoscopy and narrow-band imaging can aid in improving evaluations. Urine cytology is useful for the diagnosis of high-grade tumor recurrence. Molecular medicine holds the promise that clinical outcomes will be improved by directing therapy toward the mechanisms and targets associated with the growth of an individual patient's tumor. The challenge remains to optimize measurement of these targets, evaluate the impact of such targets for therapeutic drug development, and translate molecular markers into the improved clinical management of bladder cancer patients. Physicians and researchers eventually will have a robust set of molecular markers to guide prevention, diagnosis, and treatment decisions for bladder cancer.
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