The authors ascertained the incidence of hip fracture in Saskatchewan, Canada, residents aged 65 years or older for the 10 years 1976-1985 from computerized hospital discharge records and compared it with rates for several other populations in Northern Europe and the United States. In Saskatchewan, the average annual incidence was 5.5 per 1,000 person-years. The incidence in women was twice that in men, the incidence in urban areas was 27% greater than that in nonurban areas, and there was no secular trend of increasing rates. The incidence of hip fracture in Saskatchewan was lower than that for populations in Scandinavia and the United States but was comparable to rates in English populations. Further study is needed to elucidate the genetic, environmental, and behavioral factors responsible for this variation.