Superoxide reaction with tyrosyl radicals generates para-hydroperoxy and para-hydroxy derivatives of tyrosine.

Möller MN, Hatch DM, Kim HY, Porter NA
J Am Chem Soc. 2012 134 (40): 16773-80

PMID: 22989205 · DOI:10.1021/ja307215z

Tyrosine-derived hydroperoxides are formed in peptides and proteins exposed to enzymatic or cellular sources of superoxide and oxidizing species as a result of the nearly diffusion-limited reaction between tyrosyl radical and superoxide. However, the structure of these products, which informs their reactivity in biology, has not been unequivocally established. We report here the complete characterization of the products formed in the addition of superoxide, generated from xanthine oxidase, to several peptide-derived tyrosyl radicals, formed from horseradish peroxidase. RP-HPLC, LC-MS, and NMR experiments indicate that the primary stable products of superoxide addition to tyrosyl radical are para-hydroperoxide derivatives (para relative to the position of the OH in tyrosine) that can be reduced to the corresponding para-alcohol. In the case of glycyl-tyrosine, a stable 3-(1-hydroperoxy-4-oxocyclohexa-2,5-dien-1-yl)-L-alanine was formed. In tyrosyl-glycine and Leu-enkephalin, which have N-terminal tyrosines, bicyclic indolic para-hydroperoxide derivatives were formed ((2S,3aR,7aR)-3a-hydroperoxy-6-oxo-2,3,3a,6,7,7a-hexahydro-1H-indole-2-carboxylic acid) by the conjugate addition of the free amine to the cyclohexadienone. It was also found that significant amounts of the para-OH derivative were generated from the hydroxyl radical, formed on exposure of tyrosine-containing peptides to Fenton conditions. The para-OOH and para-OH derivatives are much more reactive than other tyrosine oxidation products and may play important roles in physiology and disease.

MeSH Terms (13)

Animals Armoracia Cattle Enkephalin, Leucine Horseradish Peroxidase Hydrogen Peroxide Models, Molecular Oxidation-Reduction Peptides Superoxide Dismutase Superoxides Tyrosine Xanthine Oxidase

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