Electrophilic adduction of ubiquitin activating enzyme E1 by N,N-diethyldithiocarbamate inhibits ubiquitin activation and is accompanied by striatal injury in the rat.

Viquez OM, Caito SW, McDonald WH, Friedman DB, Valentine WM
Chem Res Toxicol. 2012 25 (11): 2310-21

PMID: 22874009 · PMCID: PMC3502677 · DOI:10.1021/tx300198h

Previous studies have shown ubiquitin activating enzyme E1 to be sensitive to adduction through both Michael addition and SN(2) chemistry in vitro. E1 presents a biologically important putative protein target for adduction due to its role in initiating ubiquitin based protein processing and the involvement of impaired ubiquitin protein processing in two types of familial Parkinson's disease. We tested whether E1 is susceptible to xenobiotic-mediated electrophilic adduction in vivo and explored the potential contribution of E1 adduction to neurodegenerative events in an animal model. N,N-Diethyldithiocarbamate (DEDC) was administered to rats using a protocol that produces covalent cysteine modifications in vivo, and brain E1 protein adducts were characterized and mapped using shotgun LC-MS/MS. E1 activity, global and specific protein expression, and protein carbonyls were used to characterize cellular responses and injury in whole brain and dorsal striatal samples. The data demonstrate that DEDC treatment produced S-(ethylaminocarbonyl) adducts on Cys234 and Cys179 residues of E1 and decreased the levels of activated E1 and total ubiquitinated proteins. Proteomic analysis of whole brain samples identified expression changes for proteins involved in myelin structure, antioxidant response, and catechol metabolism, systems often disrupted in neurodegenerative disease. Our studies also delineated localized injury within the striatum as indicated by decreased levels of tyrosine hydroxylase, elevated protein carbonyl content, increased antioxidant enzyme and α-synuclein expression, and enhanced phosphorylation of tau and tyrosine hydroxylase. These data are consistent with E1 having similar susceptibility to adduction in vivo as previously reported in vitro and support further investigation into environmental agent adduction of E1 as a potential contributing factor to neurodegenerative disease. Additionally, this study supports the predictive value of in vitro screens for identifying sensitive protein targets that can be used to guide subsequent in vivo experiments.

MeSH Terms (12)

Animals Corpus Striatum Ditiocarb Enzyme Activation Enzyme Inhibitors Humans Male Models, Molecular Rats Rats, Sprague-Dawley Structure-Activity Relationship Ubiquitin-Activating Enzymes

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