The chemokine receptors CXCR1 and CXCR2 couple to distinct G protein-coupled receptor kinases to mediate and regulate leukocyte functions.

Raghuwanshi SK, Su Y, Singh V, Haynes K, Richmond A, Richardson RM
J Immunol. 2012 189 (6): 2824-32

PMID: 22869904 · PMCID: PMC3436986 · DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1201114

The chemokine receptors, CXCR1 and CXCR2, couple to Gαi to induce leukocyte recruitment and activation at sites of inflammation. Upon activation by CXCL8, these receptors become phosphorylated, desensitized, and internalized. In this study, we investigated the role of different G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) in CXCR1- and CXCR2-mediated cellular functions. To that end, short hairpin RNA was used to inhibit GRK2, 3, 5, and 6 in RBL-2H3 cells stably expressing CXCR1 or CXCR2, and CXCL8-mediated receptor activation and regulation were assessed. Inhibition of GRK2 and GRK6 increased CXCR1 and CXCR2 resistance to phosphorylation, desensitization, and internalization, respectively, and enhanced CXCL8-induced phosphoinositide hydrolysis and exocytosis in vitro. GRK2 depletion diminished CXCR1-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation but had no effect on CXCR2-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation. GRK6 depletion had no significant effect on CXCR1 function. However, peritoneal neutrophils from mice deficient in GRK6 (GRK6(-/-)) displayed an increase in CXCR2-mediated G protein activation but in vitro exhibited a decrease in chemotaxis, receptor desensitization, and internalization relative to wild-type (GRK6(+/+)) cells. In contrast, neutrophil recruitment in vivo in GRK6(-/-) mice was increased in response to delivery of CXCL1 through the air pouch model. In a wound-closure assay, GRK6(-/-) mice showed enhanced myeloperoxidase activity, suggesting enhanced neutrophil recruitment, and faster wound closure compared with GRK6(+/+) animals. Taken together, the results indicate that CXCR1 and CXCR2 couple to distinct GRK isoforms to mediate and regulate inflammatory responses. CXCR1 predominantly couples to GRK2, whereas CXCR2 interacts with GRK6 to negatively regulate receptor sensitization and trafficking, thus affecting cell signaling and angiogenesis.

MeSH Terms (20)

Animals Cell Line, Tumor Exocytosis Female G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 2 G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinases Humans Interleukin-8 Leukemia, Basophilic, Acute Male Mice Mice, Inbred C57BL Mice, Knockout Neovascularization, Physiologic Neutrophils Phosphorylation Rats Receptors, Interleukin-8A Receptors, Interleukin-8B Signal Transduction

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