Tubulointerstitial fibrosis mediates the development of end-stage renal disease from renal injuries of all etiologies and is considered an important predictor of renal survival. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is one of the most important growth factors that promotes tubulointerstitial fibrosis, but the mechanisms whereby this occurs are not well defined. This is because TGF-β has pleiotropic effects that depend on the target cell type. This review discusses how TGF-β signaling in each of the relevant cell types (eg, tubular epithelium, fibroblasts) may contribute to tubulointerstitial fibrosis progression and suggests ways in which future research can improve our understanding of TGF-β-mediated tubulointerstitial fibrosis.
Published by Elsevier Inc.