Pattern recognition receptors for fungi include dectin-1 and mannose receptor, and these mediate phagocytosis, as well as production of cytokines, reactive oxygen species, and the lipid mediator leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)). The influence of G protein-coupled receptor ligands such as LTB(4) on fungal pattern recognition receptor expression is unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of LTB(4) signaling in dectin-1 expression and responsiveness in macrophages. Genetic and pharmacologic approaches showed that LTB(4) production and signaling through its high-affinity G protein-coupled receptor leukotriene B(4) receptor 1 (BLT1) direct dectin-1-dependent binding, ingestion, and cytokine production both in vitro and in vivo. Impaired responses to fungal glucans correlated with lower dectin-1 expression in macrophages from leukotriene (LT)- and BLT1-deficent mice than their wild-type counterparts. LTB(4) increased the expression of the transcription factor responsible for dectin-1 expression, PU.1, and PU.1 small interfering RNA abolished LTB(4)-enhanced dectin-1 expression. GM-CSF controls PU.1 expression, and this cytokine was decreased in LT-deficient macrophages. Addition of GM-CSF to LT-deficient cells restored expression of dectin-1 and PU.1, as well as dectin-1 responsiveness. In addition, LTB(4) effects on dectin-1, PU.1, and cytokine production were blunted in GM-CSF(-/-) macrophages. Our results identify LTB(4)-BLT1 signaling as an unrecognized controller of dectin-1 transcription via GM-CSF and PU.1 that is required for fungi-protective host responses.