Human respiratory syncytial virus nucleoprotein and inclusion bodies antagonize the innate immune response mediated by MDA5 and MAVS.

Lifland AW, Jung J, Alonas E, Zurla C, Crowe JE, Santangelo PJ
J Virol. 2012 86 (15): 8245-58

PMID: 22623778 · PMCID: PMC3421640 · DOI:10.1128/JVI.00215-12

Currently, the spatial distribution of human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) proteins and RNAs in infected cells is still under investigation, with many unanswered questions regarding the interaction of virus-induced structures and the innate immune system. Very few studies of hRSV have used subcellular imaging as a means to explore the changes in localization of retinoic-acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I)-like receptors or the mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS) protein, in response to the infection and formation of viral structures. In this investigation, we found that both RIG-I and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) colocalized with viral genomic RNA and the nucleoprotein (N) as early as 6 h postinfection (hpi). By 12 hpi, MDA5 and MAVS were observed within large viral inclusion bodies (IB). We used a proximity ligation assay (PLA) and determined that the N protein was in close proximity to MDA5 and MAVS in IBs throughout the course of the infection. Similar results were found with the transient coexpression of N and the phosphoprotein (P). Additionally, we demonstrated that the localization of MDA5 and MAVS in IBs inhibited the expression of interferon β mRNA 27-fold following Newcastle disease virus infection. From these data, we concluded that the N likely interacts with MDA5, is in close proximity to MAVS, and localizes these molecules within IBs in order to attenuate the interferon response. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a specific function for hRSV IBs and of the hRSV N protein as a modulator of the innate immune response.

MeSH Terms (22)

Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing Animals Birds Cell Line, Tumor Cercopithecus aethiops DEAD-box RNA Helicases DEAD Box Protein 58 Genome, Viral Humans Immunity, Innate Interferon-beta Interferon-Induced Helicase, IFIH1 Intranuclear Inclusion Bodies Newcastle Disease Newcastle disease virus Nucleoproteins Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections RNA, Messenger RNA, Viral Vero Cells Viral Proteins

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