Comparison of the DNA-alkylating properties and mutagenic responses of a series of S-(2-haloethyl)-substituted cysteine and glutathione derivatives.

Humphreys WG, Kim DH, Cmarik JL, Shimada T, Guengerich FP
Biochemistry. 1990 29 (45): 10342-50

PMID: 2261477 · DOI:10.1021/bi00497a008

The mutagenicity of 1,2-dibromoethane is highly dependent upon its conjugation to glutathione by the enzyme glutathione S-transferase. The conjugates thus formed can react with DNA and yield almost exclusively N7-guanyl adducts. We have synthesized the S-haloethyl conjugates of cysteine and glutathione, as well as selected methyl ester and N-acetyl derivatives, and compared them for ability to produce N7-guanyl adducts with calf thymus DNA. The cysteine compounds were found to be more reactive toward calf thymus DNA and yielded higher adduct levels than did the glutathione compounds. Adduct levels tended to be suppressed when there was a net charge on the compound and were not affected by substitution of bromine for chlorine, as expected for a mechanism known to involve an intermediate episulfonium ion. Sequence-selective alkylation of fragments of pBR322 DNA was investigated. The compounds produced qualitatively similar patterns of alkylation, with higher levels of alkylation at runs of guanines. The compounds were also tested for their ability to act as direct mutagens in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100. None of the compounds caused mutations in the TA98 frameshift mutagenesis assay. In the strain TA100, where mutation of a specific guanine by base-pair substitution produces reversion, all compounds were found to produce mutations, but the levels of mutagenicity did not correlate at all with the levels of DNA alkylation. The ratio of mutations to adducts varied at least 14-fold among the various N7-guanyl adducts examined.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

MeSH Terms (12)

Alkylating Agents Base Composition Cysteine DNA DNA Repair Gene Expression Glutathione Hydrocarbons, Halogenated Mutagens Plasmids Salmonella typhimurium SOS Response, Genetics

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