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Cytomegalovirus infection.

Plosa EJ, Esbenshade JC, Fuller MP, Weitkamp JH
Pediatr Rev. 2012 33 (4): 156-63; quiz 163

PMID: 22474112 · DOI:10.1542/pir.33-4-156

Although commonly asymptomatic, congenital CMV infection is the leading cause of nonhereditary SNHL. Other sequelae that may be evident only after the neonatal period can include chorioretinitis, neurodevelopmental delay with mental or motor impairment, and microcephaly. (13) • Congenital CMV infection is confirmed by detection of the virus in urine, blood, or saliva within the first 3 weeks of life by culture or polymerase chain reaction. A positive test does not necessarily confirm symptomatic CMV disease or need for treatment. (13) • Postnatal CMV infections transmitted through human milk have been reported and may be clinically relevant in extremely premature infants; however, the risk-benefit ratio of pasteurizing human milk for the prevention of postnatal CMV infection is unclear. • Ganciclovir, valganciclovir, foscarnet, cidofovir, and CMV hyperimmune globulin are effective in treating or preventing CMV infections in the immunocompromised host, but require close monitoring for associated toxicities. Treatment for congenital CMV is associated with significant toxicity and uncertain effectiveness. • Based on strong evidence, anticipatory guidance for congenital CMV infection should include hearing tests and neurodevelopmental assessments until school age. (3) In patients with symptomatic congenital CMV infection, lifelong ophthalmologic screening should be included. (4) • Based primarily on consensus, owing to lack of relevant clinical studies, it is not recommended to withhold human milk produced by CMV-seropositive mothers from healthy term infants. (5)(6) • Based on some research evidence, as well as consensus, treatment for congenital CMV is recommended only in symptomatic infants with central nervous system involvement. (9)

MeSH Terms (12)

Antiviral Agents Child Cytomegalovirus Infections Cytomegalovirus Vaccines Global Health Humans Immunocompromised Host Infant Infant, Newborn Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical Postoperative Complications Transplantation

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