The purpose of this study was to evaluate the fatty acid composition of chylomicron triglycerides isolated from subjects fed liquid-formula diets containing 40% of total energy as medium- (C8:0 and C10:0) or long-chain (C16-C18) triglycerides (MCT, LCT) for 6 d. Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) comprised 8% of total chylomicron triglyceride fatty acids after the first MCT meal. After 6 d of continued MCT feeding, chylomicron triglyceride MCFA content increased to 13%. When subjects were fed the LCT (soybean oil) diet, C16:0, C18:1, and C18:2 comprised nearly 90% of the chylomicron triglyceride fatty acids. The mass of triglyceride transported in chylomicrons isolated from subjects fed the MCT diet was approximately 20% of that found when subjects consumed the LCT diet. We conclude that although total triglyceride production during MCT ingestion is low, the chylomicron triglycerides that are synthesized contain significant amounts of MCFA.