The miniaturization of electrochemical sensors allows for the minimally invasive and cost effective examination of cellular responses at a high efficacy rate. In this work, an ink-jet printed superoxide dismutase electrode was designed, characterized, and utilized as a novel microfluidic device to examine the metabolic response of a 2D layer of macrophage cells. Since superoxide production is one of the first indicators of oxidative burst, macrophage cells were exposed within the microfluidic device to phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), a known promoter of oxidative burst, and the production of superoxide was measured. A 46 ± 19% increase in current was measured over a 30 min time period demonstrating successful detection of sustained macrophage oxidative burst, which corresponds to an increase in the superoxide production rate by 9 ± 3 attomoles/cell/s. Linear sweep voltammetry was utilized to show the selectivity of this sensor for superoxide over hydrogen peroxide. This novel controllable microfluidic system can be used to study the impact of multiple effectors from a large number of bacteria or other invaders along a 2D layer of macrophages, providing an in vitro platform for improved electrochemical studies of metabolic responses.
Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.