Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the ability to self-renew and differentiate into multiple lineages making them an appropriate candidate for stem cell therapy. In spite of achieving considerable success in preclinical models, limited success has been achieved in clinical settings with MSCs. A major impediment that is faced is low survival of MSCs in injured tissues following implantation. In order to enhance the reparative properties of MSCs, it is vital to understand the molecular signals that regulate MSC survival and self-renewal. This review assimilates information that characterizes MSCs and mentions their utilization in myocardial infarction therapy. Additionally, our attempt herein is to gather pertinent published information regarding the role of canonical Wnt and BMP signaling in regulating the potential of MSCs to self-renew, proliferate, differentiate, and survive.
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