Salmonella species are a group of Gram-negative enterobacteria and known human pathogens in developing as well as industrialized countries. Despite significant advances in sanitation, provision of potable water, and highly controlled food chain surveillance, transmission of Salmonella spp. continues to affect communities, preferentially children, worldwide. This review summarizes updated concepts on typhoidal and non-typhoidal Salmonella infections, starting with a historical perspective that implicates typhoid Salmonella as a significant human pathogen since ancient times. We describe the epidemiology of this pathogen with emphasis on the most recent non-typhoidal Salmonella outbreaks in industrialized countries and continued outbreaks of typhoid Salmonella in underserved countries. An overview of clinical aspects of typhoid and non-typhoid infections in developing and industrialized countries, respectively, is provided, followed by a description on current treatment concepts and challenges treating multidrug-resistant Salmonella infections. We conclude with prevention recommendations, and recent research studies on vaccine prevention.
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