Non-MHC-restricted killer cells are cytotoxic lymphocytes that can mediate cytolysis of most tumor targets without apparent selectivity and restriction by the MHC, particularly when activated with IL-2. These effector cells include predominantly NK cells and T cells expressing the TCR-gamma/delta. We found that TCR-gamma/delta-1+, delta TSC1-, BB3+, Ti gamma A+ T cell clones mediate a characteristic cytolytic pattern of non-MHC-restricted cytolysis that is markedly different from NK clones and alpha/beta T cell clones derived from the peripheral blood of the same normal individuals. The characteristic finding is that all BB3/Ti gamma A+ gamma/delta clones mediate strong cytolysis of Daudi cells but they do not lyse Raji cells. In contrast, NK clones from the same donors mediate strong cytolysis of both Daudi and Raji targets. Cytotoxicity by the gamma/delta clones on certain target cells such as Daudi and Molt 4 can be specifically inhibited by mAbs reactive against the TCR-gamma/delta. Therefore, the TCR-gamma/delta on these clones either directly recognizes target epitopes on some tumor targets or it is involved in the regulation of their cytotoxic function. The expression of TCR-gamma/delta products reacting with the BB3 and Ti gamma A mAbs reflects the usage of identical TCR-gamma/delta V region genes that appear to be associated with the characteristic pattern of non-MHC-restricted cytotoxicity displayed by this major subset of human peripheral blood gamma/delta cells.