AIMS - The purpose of this study was to develop a measure of psychosocial barriers to adherence in adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and examine relationships to patient characteristics, adherence, and hemoglobin A1C (A1C).
METHODS - Barriers to diabetes adherence (BDA) items were generated by researchers, clinicians, and patients. Adolescents aged 12-17 with T1D completed the BDA and an adherence measure. Hemoglobin A1C was obtained through medical chart review.
RESULTS - Factor analysis from 123 adolescents resulted in a 21-item, five-component solution that accounted for 64.5% of the variance. The components were stress and burnout, time pressure and planning, social support, parental autonomy support, and stigma. The BDA total and subscales were internally consistent. The BDA total and some components were associated with adherence and A1C. The BDA was the only predictor of A1C compared to demographic, clinical, and adherence variables (F 6.17, p<.05). Subjects with higher A1C (>8.5) showed a higher level of barriers (F 15.20, p<.001) and a differential profile of barriers (F 5.75, p<.05).
CONCLUSIONS - The BDA may be useful in research and clinical settings as a compliment to adherence measures and to tailor educational programs. Additional research is necessary to establish test-retest reliability and discriminant validity.
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